Usually it is channeled to a contact process plant for the manufacture of sulphuric acid. It is then mixed with coke and limestone and then fed at the top of the furnace using the double bell (double-cone devise) changing system. The carbon(II) Oxide formed reduces the Iron(III)Oxide to iron. At this lower temperature the molten oxide also conducts well. Depend on position of the metal in the reactivity series. The extraction of aluminium from its ore takes place in two stages, purification stage and electrolysis stage. This occurs much lower down the furnace at higher temperatures of about 800. Aluminium ions move to the cathode and are reduced to form aluminium metal. Download and Read Form 4 Chemistry Notes Form 4 Chemistry Notes Titles Type form 4 Chemistry Notes PDF. The impure copper is refined by electrolysis. floatation. When heated in air it forms a black layer of copper (II) oxide on its surface. Our notes of Chapter 3 Metals and Non-metals are prepared by Science experts in an easy to remember format, covering all syllabus of CBSE, KVPY, NTSE, Olympiads, NCERT & other Competitive Exams. 1400, Consequently the molten iron would easily solidify at the base (Temp =1400, Impurities absorbed by iron during melting ( mainly carbon ) reducing the melting point to below 1400. There are two major methods of obtaining the metals from the use.a.) Zinc metal is obtained from the oxide via a series of steps: The ZnO obtained from roasting the ore is converted to zinc sulphate by reacting it with dilute sulphuric (VI) acid. Prevents sodium reacting with chlorine forming NaCl. anode. FeSiO3, which constitutes the slag.The slag separates itself from the copper (I) Sulphide. Consequently the carbon anode should be replaced from time to time. Making Aluminium foils due to its high malleability. The high heat of formation of Aluminium oxide , results into a vigorous exothermic reaction that leads to a molten metal. Metal, any of a class of substances characterized by high electrical and thermal conductivity as well as by malleability, ductility, and high reflectivity of light. Steam reacts with red-hot zinc, forming zinc oxide and liberating hydrogen gas. Coursework e-Content CD covers all the topics for a particular class per year and costs 1200/- ( Per Subject per Class ). Why is the anode made of graphite and not steel? Courtesy of You Tube). The limestone decomposes to give Carbon (IV) oxide.Equation. During electrolysis, the copper anode dissolves into solution. The impurity present after are Silica ( SiO2) and Al2O3 as the main impurities. The concentrated copper pyrite, CuFeS2 is then roasted in air to remove some of the sulphur impurities as sulphur (IV) oxide. Less volatile impurities remain in the furnace. The iron ore, coke and limestone are heated by blasting in hot air at 6000C blown in from the bottom of the furnace. Liquid zinc being lighter settles above molten lead and is run off; The vapour is condensed in a spray of molten lead to prevent re-oxidation of zinc. Chemical leaching the crushed ore is first dissolved in a chemical where only the ore can dissolve. 18.0.0 Acids, Bases and Salts (25 Lessons) 19.0.0 Energy Changes in Chemical and Physical Processes (25 Lessons) 20.0.0 Reaction Rates and Reversible Reactions (15 Lessons) 21.0.0 Electrochemistry (25 Lessons) 22.0.0 Metals (20 Lessons) 23.0.0 Organic Chemistry II (Alkanols and Alkanoic Acids) (20 Lessons) The calcium oxide will be used in the removal of the main ore impurity/ silicates/ silica in the form of silicon (IV) oxide. chloride. The common alloys with some of their uses are given in the table below. The following is a summary of the way metals can be obtained from their concentrated ores depending on their position in the electrochemical series. Two reducing agents are used in this process: Coke and carbon (II) oxide; with carbon (II) oxide being the main reducing agent. The oxide layer reacts with more air moisture to form hydroxide, Due to those series of reactions sodium is stored under a liquid hydrocarbon e.g. iron (III) hydroxide. State the properties of sodium metal that makes it possible for it to be collected as shown in the diagram. Reduction by carbonb.) One can make an endless list of the compounds of the metals. The lead produced during the process is a liquid at the furnace temperature and trickles to the bottom of the furnace from where it may be tapped off. « Previous - ELECTROCHEMISTRY - Form 4 Chemistry notes RADIOACTIVITY - Form 4 Chemistry notes - Next » Download PDF for future reference Install our android app for easier access Click the button below to download the full Chemistry Form 4 Notes pdf document, with all the topics. The earthy impurities in the ore (mainly silica) react with calcium oxide from decomposition of limestone to form calcium silicate. Zinc is above hydrogen in the reactivity series hence displaces hydrogen from steam (water) and dilute acids like H. Pure zinc reacts slowly while impure zinc reacts faster/more quickly. Click to play the following video clip to observe how this electrolysis takes place. Upon removal of dust particles, the furnace gases, being hot can be used to pre-heat the air blown in at the base. Copper is used in the manufacture of various products. The thermite is ignited using magnesium ribbon fuse, since the reaction will not start at low temperatures. The ore is concentrated by froth floatation . Carbon (II) Oxide and coke are the reducing agents in the furnace. CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK CHAPTER 2: MATTER 1. HTML code is not allowed. The iron reduces hot concentrated H 2 SO 4 to sulphur (IV) oxide and it is itself oxidized to iron (III) sulphate. Hot air-the blast is pumped into the lower part of the furnace. Main components include Nitrogen, unreacted CO. Additionally they contain dust particles. 2 ⎯→ 2Li. In Kenya , Zinc blende is found at Kaloleni near Mombasa. CHEMISTRY FORM 4 NOTES. Iron is the most abundant metal ore in the earths crust. Chemical properties.Note: - Lead is fairly unreactive to most other metals; The flow chart below illustrates the industrial extraction of lead metal. Die-castings contain zinc and aluminium, and are used for making radio and car parts; Zinc cyanide is used for refining silver and gold; Study the flow chart below and answer the questions that follow. Copper does not react with dilute hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acids. Test the If the oxide film is removed, the metal reacts slowly with cold water. Major ore producing areas are Singhbum district (Bihar), Balaghat district (Madhya Pradesh) and Jhunjhunu district (Rajasthan). In this process, the naturally occurring, raw material is usually mixed with another compound. The copper obtained is 97.5% pure. CaCO3(s) VO3:Ship Hull is made of steelZinc is sacrificed to protect the steel. The ore-haematite is crushed and mixed with coke and limestone. Summary: flow chart on extraction of lead. An alloy is a uniform mixture of a metal with one or more other substances e.g. However it reacts with 50% Nitric acid, concentrated Nitric acid and concentrated sulphuric acid. Oxidation is also used followed by reduction. Write an equation for the reaction at the cathode. Test the link below to find out if you have Adobe Flash in your computer. The silicates together with other less volatile impurities form slag , at the bottom of the furnace from where it is run off. At this high temp, oxygen gas evolved reacts with carbon to form Carbon (IV) oxide and Carbon (II) oxide .this reaction bums away the anodes .the anode must therefore be replaced quite often. The complex ions formed are water soluble, and can be separated by filtration, leaving the unwanted materials in the residue. The Aluminium oxide dissociates to give constituent ions; A silvery white metal which quickly becomes dulled. What is the function of the steel guaze cylinder? The solution of Zinc in molten lead is cooled further and the Zinc collects on the surface from where it is run off. CO2(g) + heat This reaction is highly exothermic and it raises the temperature to between 600 - 16000c. The iron impurities (mainly iron (III) oxide) DO NOT dissolve. Is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity with low melting point hence used; In nuclear reactors to conduct away heat. Copper (II) sulphate is used as a catalyst to speed up the reaction. The ore is ground into a fine powder; to increase the surface area for upcoming reactions. Utilizes the difference in density between the minerals and the unwanted materials. Reduction by carbonb.) The slag separates itself from the copper (I) sulphide. Forms 7% of the earth s crust and is the most common metal, Electrolysis of purified bauxite (alumina. Click the button below to download the full Chemistry Form 4 Notes pdf document, with all the topics. metals - make up 3/4 of the periodic table, in left/middle part . Aluminium settles to the bottom of the cell and its tapped off at An ore is any naturally-occurring source of a metal that you can economically extract the metal from. Negatively charged Cl - ions migrate to the positive anode and undergo oxidation to form chlorine gas, Is a soft silvery metal with low density; 0.979gcm. The resultant carbon (IV) oxide is also quickly recycled by being reduced to CO by coke to from more reducing agent. What is the function of the steel gauze cylinder? Calculate the mass of sodium produced in kg (Na = 23; 1F = 96500 C), For the same quantity of electricity as in (c) above ; calculate the volume of the gaseous product produced in the cell at 15. The ores are first roasted in air to form the metal oxides. The sulphuric acid is reduced to sulphur (IV) oxide. The impurities makes it brittle and cannot be welded, its used to make cookers, stoves railings, water pipes and not materials that require strength e.g. Increase the dilution of the electrolyte/ use a very dilute electrolyte. The silica impurities combine with the quicklime/ calcium oxide (CaO) from limestone to form calcium silicate. Provides the glow in sodium vapours lamps, for street lighting (orange-yellow street lights). Read Free Chemistry Form 4 Notes Topic Metals Chemistry Form 4 Notes Topic Metals Right here, we have countless book chemistry form 4 notes topic metals and collections to check out. A waste material called slag is formed at the same time. Cu2O, Chalcocite Cu2S The following equations show how this occurs. 18.0.0 Acids, Bases and Salts (25 Lessons) 19.0.0 Energy Changes in Chemical and Physical Processes (25 Lessons) 20.0.0 Reaction Rates and Reversible Reactions (15 Lessons) 21.0.0 Electrochemistry (25 Lessons) 22.0.0 Metals (20 Lessons) 23.0.0 Organic Chemistry II (Alkanols and Alkanoic Acids) (20 Lessons) Reduction: Heating of oxides of metals to turn them into metal is known as Reduction. Why is this yet steel is a better conductor? Form 3 Chemistry – COMPOUNDS OF METALS. State an industry that can be built next to a sodium extracting plant. (Courtesy of You Tube), The raw materials are fed into the blast furnace from the top of the furnace, these include, a) Iron ore mainly Haematite Fe2O3b) This reaction is ordinarily slow and thus serves to only reduce the part of the ore reduced by CO at lower temperatures in the upper parts of the furnace. The resultant carbon (IV) oxide produced in reaction (i) above further reduces any remaining lead (II) oxide; The scrap iron is added so as to react with any lead sulphide that may be present. Copper (II) sulphate solution is used as the electrolyte. Warm dilute nitric (V) acid gives iron (II) nitrate. This provides the required temperatures for the reactions in the blast furnace. Thus the ore is first concentrated before the actual extraction. Hot unreacted/waste gases leave at the top of the furnace. The main ore of iron are; Reduction of Iron( III) Oxide is carried out in a blast furnace. Finely divided copper burns with a blue flame . 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