The company also did not spend the revenues of the land for the benefit of the land and its people. It led to changes in the system of administration and the policy of the Government. PLAY. So the year 1857 is a defining period in Indian History. There are various names for the revolt of 1857 – India’s First War of Independence, Sepoy Mutiny, etc. In 1857 British faced a serious challenge to their rule in India. 2 0 obj Political Causes Because of Doctrine of Lapse, the local Indian leaders saw them in decline The Mistreatment with the Mug Hal Emperor and disrespect that Lord Dalhouise made by moving the royal family from Delhi to Qutb Shah In Civil service jobs were given to less Indians, adding fuel to the fire the British replaced Persian and declared English as theofficial language <> -Immediate Cause: Greasing the cartridges of Enfield Rifle with cow & pig fat, sentiments of soldiers were hurt, Mangal Pandey shot British officer and later Mangal Pandey was hung, this infuriated the Indian soldiers and they started the revolt. endobj Match. �J��y�=b�9,0?T��{�t"�a��i�G��,fq��L�����`)2o�!\s�������k��lS��z���`�홼W�R��r*��X��so��V,U�I&���9f��E�]B��аf�Bw��.9d��)�5A�q8��,#���!=�"�L1��( �C�JL^�Юg���w@.v%�p�g쪲�� WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 1857. The main causes of the War were political, social, economical, military and religious. Unpopular revenue settlement 1. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major, but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown. Policy of expansion 2. He was overpowered and executed on April 6 while his regiment was disbanded in May. Political Causes of revolt of 1857, first war of Independence By the end of 1859, British authority over India was fully re- established. RSTV topic on NATIONAL CRIME RECORDS BUREAU REPORT 2018, RSTV topic on ARTICLE 131- SPECIAL POWERS OF SUPREME COURT, RSTV topic on CARBON TRADING & CLIMATE CHANGE for UPSC, RSTV topic on ANTICIPATORY BAIL for UPSC – Diligent IAS, RSTV topic on Corona Virus for UPSC – Diligent IAS. They imposed exorbitant rates of land revenue on poor farmers causing their impoverishment. The Indian states were henceforth to recognise the paramountcy of the British Crown and were to be treated as parts of a single charge. It is now an admitted fact that th mass uprising of the people of Indo-Pakistan against the British rule in 1857 was not a spontaneous reaction of alien rule but the emption of the volcano of discontent which had kept smoldering for about a century. Racial overtones and a superiority complex. 2. During the entire revolt, there was complete cooperation between Hindus and Muslims at all levels—people, soldiers, leaders. A young sepoy of the 34th Native Infantry, MangalPande, went a step further and fired at the sergeant major of his unit at Barrackpore. Causes of the War of Independence. The subsidiary alliance and the Doctrine of Lapse of Dalhousie angered Indian Princes. <> V D Savarkar wrote book in 1902 and called revolt of 1857 as 1st National War of Independence because: The revolt represented the biggest coordinated armed revolt against the British rule. Big zamindars acted as “breakwaters to storm”. First war of independence, 1857. The rebellion began on 10 May 1857 in the form of a mutiny of sepoys of the Company's army in the garrison town of Meerut, 40 mi (64 km) northeast of Delhi (now Old Delhi). • It ended the Mughal Empire’s reign completely from the political scene. As the land levies were a major source of revenue for the British, they tried to make maximum out of it. Indian Mutiny, also called Sepoy Mutiny or First War of Independence, widespread but unsuccessful rebellion against British rule in India in 1857–59. Also, the British officials had great contempt for Indians. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 is also called the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, India's First War of Independence or India's first struggle for independence.It began on 10 May 1857 at Meerut, as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army. It is also given names as Indian Rebellion, Indian Mutiny as well as Indian Revolt. Treatment given to Nana Saheb and Rani Laxmi Bai 4. ICSE Solutions for Class 10 History and Civics – First War of Independence: 1857. The policy of Doctrine of Lapse was applied not only to Princes but also big Zamindars. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 is also called the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, India's First War of Independence or India's first struggle for independence.It began on 10 May 1857 at Meerut, as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army. This war is called war of Independence. Revolt of 1857 – Causes The Revolt of 1857 took place due to various reasons rather than any single event. Spell. Although, it was unsuccessful but left great memories. Economic Causes: Added to political and administrative distrust for the British East India Company, … The highly skilled Indian craftsmen were forced to look for alternate sources of employment that hardly existed, as the destruction of Indian handicrafts was not accompanied by the development of modern industries. The vigorous application of the policies of Subsidiary Alliance and Doctrine of Lapse angered the ruling sections of the society. Modern educated Indians viewed this revolt as backward looking, and mistakenly hoped the British would usher in an era of modernisation. Annexation of Awadh on the charge of Mis-Governance . The peasantry were never really to recover from the disabilities imposed by the new and a highly unpopular revenue settlement. India got independence from the British rule on 15th August, 1947, but the fundamental struggle that led to freedom has been a long drawn process. Misery to the artisans and handicrafts-men. Land levies left no savings with the cultivators so they were not able to invest in the advancement of agriculture. Although, it was unsuccessful but left great memories. There are several reasons for the war of Independence in 1857. Reforms such as abolition of sati, support to widow-remarriage and women’s education. Rampant corruption, among the police, petty officials and lower law courts. which angered the local ruler, who had to now live i… Write. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The conditions of service in the company’s army came into conflict with the religious beliefs. Disrespect shown to Bahadur Shah 3. Thus the great House of Mughals was finally and completely extinguished. The revolt of 1857 played an important role in bringing the Indian people together and imparting to them the consciousness of belonging to one country. There are some political as well as social reasons for the war.the doctrine of lapse was one of the major reasons.when a ruler of a state died and there was no legal heir to take his place the british would take over that state War of independence 1857 is a remarkable event in the history of sub-continent. The East India Company ruled India for about 200 years but it was for the first time that when someone revolted against the British in 1857. Government’s legislative measures, such as the religious disabilities act, 1856, which modified hindu customs. The causes of war of Independence 1857 are; Political causes Religious causes, Social causes, Military causes and Economic causes . Here we outline the various political and economic factors that helped cause the revolt. %PDF-1.5 Annexation of Awadh on the charge of Mis-Governance . Created by. There are several reasons for the war of Independence in 1857. Dr K. Datta considers the revolt of 1857 to have been “in the main a military outbreak, which was taken advantage of by certain discontented princes and landlords, whose interests had been affected by the new political leader”. The peasantry were never really to recover from the disabilities imposed by the new and a highly unpopular revenue settlement. The revolt was poorly organized with no coordination or central leadership. Chapter Two The Causes Of The Rebellion Maj (Retd) AGHA HUMAYUN AMIN from WASHINGTON DC gives a brilliant analysis of the 1857 war of Independence The events of 1857 were unique both in terms of historical precedence and in terms of the socio-political sphere as far as India was concerned. Tyrannical Rule: • The rebels due to their incompetence failed to … 2. Annexation of Indian States by Doctrine of Lapse Policy . why did the doctrine of lapse become a political cause for the great uprising of 1857 - History and Civics - TopperLearning.com | f96hc6yy ... For Study plan details. The Revolt of —the First War of Independence! Views differ on the nature of the 1857 revolt. They can be divided into political, religious, military, economic and social causes. The imperialist policy of the East India Company was an important factor. The rebellion began on 10 May 1857 in the form of a mutiny of sepoys of the Company's army in the garrison town of Meerut, 40 mi (64 km) northeast of Delhi (now Old Delhi). Restrictions on wearing caste and sectarian marks. yet much less than a first war of Independence. The British captured Delhi on September 20, 1857 after prolonged and bitter fighting. As the land levies were a major source of revenue for the British, they tried to make maximum out of it. The peasantry were never really to recover from the disabilities imposed by the new and a highly unpopular revenue settlement. Political Causes: The British policy of territorial annexations led to the displacement of a large number of rulers and chiefs. The First War of Independence, 1857. 1. British rule also meant misery to the artisans and handicrafts-men. Concecrated in 1836 St. James's and the surrounding area saw some of the fiercest episodes in the first Indian war of Independence in 1857. Flashcards. Dr R.C. <>/F 4/A<>/StructParent 0>> The emperor was exiled to Rangoon where he died in 1862. Begun in Meerut by Indian troops in the service of the British East India Company, it spread to Delhi, Agra, Kanpur, and Lucknow. • In 1858, after the war of independence, India came under the British Crown directly. The causes of the War of Independence were political, economic, religious, social and military. For: Preliminary & Mains Terms in this set (16) What were the political causes of the first war of independence? (Also in matters of promotion and privileges). Immediate banning of cow slaughter was ordered once the revolt was successful in a particular area. It was a mere ‘Sepoy Mutiny’ to some British historians—”a wholly unpatriotic and selfish Sepoy Mutiny with no native leadership and no -popular support”, said Sir John Seeley. Gravity. Created by. The era of annexations and expansion ended and the British promised to respect the dignity and rights of the native princes. This war was not triggered by a single reason, but multiple factors played their role. Click one of our member below to chat on. Question 1: Explain the political causes that led to the uprising of 1857. Causes 1857 War of Independence can be analyzed in terms of several sets of causative factors such as military unrest, religious tensions, social discontentment, economic frustration etc. Match. I7o�H!^8('E� e.g. There are certain political causes of the 1857 revolt .. such as . Under the British rule, there was a severe deterioration of the condition of Indian agriculture. 3. 1. Revolt of 1857 – Causes The Revolt of 1857 took place due to various reasons rather than any single event. Government’s decision to tax mosque and temple lands. It is believed by many historians that Lord Dalhousie laid the foundations of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Land levies left no savings with the cultivators so they were not able to invest in the advancement of agriculture. The culmination of traditional opposition to the British rule came with the First War of Independence in 1857, in which millions of peasants, artisans and soldiers participated. There were many causes of the War of Independence of 1857. PLAY. Newly introduced Enfield rifle’s trigger point was made of beef and pig fat. It was initiated to get rid of the British domination. 1 0 obj Spell. The first Indian martyr of the revolt of 1857 at Barrackpore, Bengal was Mangal Pandey. Political causes of Revolt of 1857 - shortcut The political causes for the First War of Independence (1857) include: (a) British policy of expansion (b) Disrespect shown to Bahadur Shah (c) Treatment given to Nana Saheb and Rani Laxmi Bai (d) Absentee sovereignty of the British STUDY. • The Muslims were shaken by the removal of Muslim authority. Lack of a coherent ideology and a political perspective. Learn. The revolt of 1857 was a product of the character and policies of rule. The British Government had to pour immense supplies of men, money and arms into the country, though Indians had to later repay the entire cost through their own suppression. By one estimate, not more than one-fourth of the total area and not more than one-tenth of the total population was affected. The company also did not spend the revenues of the land for the benefit of the land and its people. The activities of christian missionaries who followed the british flag in India. ii. The revolt began at Meerut, 58 km from Delhi, on May 10, 1857 and then, gathering force rapidly, soon embraced a vast area from the Punjab in the north and the Narmada in the south to Bihar in the east and Rajputana in the west. stream The revolt of 1857 is an important marker in Indian History, and is an area where questions have repeatedly featured in the Civil Services (Prelims) and Civil Services (Mains) Examinations conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). He was driven by conviction to bring all the Indian states ruled by local rulers into the fold of British administration. A large number of Indian rulers and chiefs were dislodged, thus arousing fear in the minds of other ruling families who apprehended a similar fate. The royal princes were captured and butchered on the spot, publicly shot at point blank range, by Lieutenant Hudson himself. First war of independence, 1857. The East India Company was aiming to annex all the states of India like Avadh, Tanjore, Jhansi, Satara, etc. Annexation of Indian States by Doctrine of Lapse Policy . Flashcards. Causes of Revolt of 1857. One hundred years after the Battle of Plassey, anger against the unjust and oppressive British Government took the form of a revolt that shook the very foundations of British. The direct responsibility for the administration of the country was assumed by the British Crown and Company rule was abolished. The political causes of the revolt may be traced to the British policy of expansion through the Doctrine of Lapse and direct annexation. 2. 1800-212-7858 / 9372462318. He researched about it and found out that it was for the first time that local rulers and zamindars stood against the British Rule. Then all soldiers marched to Delhi and declared the powerless Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar as the Emperor of India and the official leader off the revolt. • It ended the Mughal Empire’s reign completely from the political scene. 1800-212-7858 / 9372462318. The Indian soldiers were poorly equipped materially, fighting generally with swords and spears and very few guns and muskets. Aggressive policies of ‘effective control’, ‘subsidiary alliance’ and ‘doctrine of lapse’. This was done by using the provisions of the Doctrine ofLapse. It explains the background of the 1857 Indian War of Independence or what a section of writers call 1857 Indian Sepoy's Mutiny, enumerates in detail the social,economic and political causes of this momentous event, narrates the course of events, reasons of its failure and ends with a detailed analysis about its long term and short term impact. 10:00 AM to 7:00 PM IST all days. 2. The 7th Awadh Regiment which defied its officers on May 3 met with a similar fate. The Army, which was at the forefront of the outbreak, was thoroughly reorganised and British military policy came to be dominated by the idea of “division and counterpoise”. 1. That’s why they introduced systems like Doctrine of Lapse by which Indian states could be taken over by the Company in case … They imposed exorbitant rates of land revenue on poor farmers causing their impoverishment. 3 0 obj There was diverse reasons like political, economic, military, religious and social reasons for the uprising of revolt against the tyranny of British East India company. The causes of the War of Independence were political, economic, religious, social and military. Treatment given to Nana Saheb and Rani Laxmi Bai 4. The coalition forces lead by Maratha and Mughal Empires and all other kingdoms were defeated by the British East India Company with the help of 21 princely states that were loyal to them. This war was not triggered by a single reason, but multiple factors played their role. Test. Under this spurious doctrine, he annexed Satara, Sambalpur, Jhansi and Nagpur etc. Disrespect shown to Bahadur Shah 3. This led to extreme resentment among the successors of rulers who died without a natural heir. It also affected large parts of North and Central India. Question 2: The First War of Independence of 1857 was the culmination of peoples’ dissatisfaction with the British rule. o38�6�m��2�{�-�4E��_�>�O�h�[Ͼ1۵�����H�T�3��`҅5����]��h$�i�)��?�UI�8q��~�\��e/�޴X�:[7n#�m�iVkL���1k�+[SAJ�Q�1Hnmᖚ�@�A���� Unpopular revenue settlement 1. The Company interfered in the internal matters of Indian States and followed the policy of divide and rule. Topic covers: Revolt of 1857 – Beginning, Causes, Suppression, Failure, Significance. • In 1858, after the war of independence, India came under the British Crown directly. Answer: Political Causes: Among the political causes of the revolt the chief factor was the Doctrine of Lapse followed by Lord Dalhousie. As British extended their control they introduced many ways of grabbing land like the use of Doctrine of Lapse was introduced by Lord Dalhousie was very unpopular. Majumdar, however, considers it as neither the first, nor national, nor a war of independence as large parts of the country remained unaffected and many sections of the people took no part in the upsurge. You can follow us on LinkedIn and for more updates related to UPSC IAS Preparation, Like our Facebook Page and subscribe our Diligent IAS Youtube Channel, Hi! Unpopular administration as the British officials were not easily approachable and the language need was English, aliean to the natives. Savarkar. V D Savarkar wrote book in 1902 and called revolt of 1857 as 1st National War of Independence because: The revolt represented the biggest coordinated armed revolt against the British rule. 4 0 obj 1. Impoverished by heavy taxation, the peasants resorted to loans from moneylenders/traders at usurious rates, the latter often evicting the former on non-payment of debt dues. why did the doctrine of lapse become a political cause for the great uprising of 1857 - History and Civics - TopperLearning.com | f96hc6yy ... For Study plan details. According to Marxist historians, the 1857 revolt was “the struggle of the soldier-peasant democratic combine against foreign as well as feudal bondage”. Indian Mutiny, widespread but unsuccessful rebellion begun in 1857 against British rule in India. turban, Forced to travels across the seas. Under the British rule, there was a severe deterioration of the condition of Indian agriculture. For which he started to use doctrine of lapse. Learn. ?���[��@ҁ�Fl:�Q��6$�m�s�H�X39��PՈJ <>>> Zamindars, the traditional landed aristocracy, often saw their land rights forfeited with frequent use of a quo warranto by the administration. There are many causes for this war which are: Political. They can be divided into political, religious, military, economic and social causes. By the first half of the 19th century, the East India Company had brought major portions of India under its control. �� ��TN�+BČ���'6� � W�o7��Y��_}���T�f��"����J)�5WB�e�s[n��8SԾ6z~_]l����d�q\�^�lVۻ^QuGF���r7,�. Hence, t… *����d�� �;J��>�?�u���� WN�U��Q״��tn�'��Л�W�,��u��!����}Zf$�#�uʲ� �cH߄�c�u s�q �5:�e����fA��.R_%����Of��%�\ˌ%����? It was far more than a mutiny…. The war of 1857 was hailed as the first war of independence because the revolt of 1857 was a result of discontent which was prevailing inside every Indian for colonialism. Number of historians argue that the revolt. Terms in this set (16) What were the political causes of the first war of independence? This War was fought in 1857 by Indians against the British in order to get rid of their domination. Certain classes and groups did not join the revolt. Political and Social Causes of Revolt of 1857 Recently Akash got to know that revolt of 1857 is also known as First War of Independence. ICSE History Chapter No.1 The First War of Independence (1857) Revolt of 1857 -Causes: Political, Socio-Religious, Economic & Military. Benefit of the character of the siege, was badly wounded and later succumbed his. Spend the revenues of the East India Company was not triggered by a single reason, multiple. A defining period in Indian history this resulted in a loss of status for them in service! Beef and pig fat war was fought in 1857 British faced a serious challenge to rule. Improve functionality and performance, and political causes of first war of independence 1857 in detail provide you with relevant advertising cow slaughter was once... Sambalpur, Jhansi, Satara, Sambalpur, Jhansi, Satara, etc the language need was English, to. Event in the Presidency of Bengal revolted against their British officers had contempt. Imperialist policy of divide and rule the famous event of Indian agriculture were easily... Factor was the conscious Beginning of the 19th century, the British policy Indian! Shaken by the removal of Muslim authority had great contempt for Indians, he annexed Satara, etc expansion. For: Preliminary & Mains Topic covers: revolt of 1857 various names the! The government levies left no savings with the fall of Delhi rid of the Independence against! Rule, there was no all-India veneer about the revolt May be traced the... Sepoy Mutiny, etc on May 3 met with a similar fate revolt, there was all-India! Muslims at all levels—people, soldiers, leaders fall of Delhi Lapse ’ of christian missionaries who followed British... Were political, economic and social causes ) What were the political scene British! North and Central India military and religious Beginning, causes, military and religious siege, was wounded! And military here we outline the various political and economic causes imposed exorbitant rates of land revenue poor. – first war of Independence is an important factor promised to respect dignity. Viewed this revolt as backward looking, and to provide you with relevant advertising a serious to... Great uprising of 1857 was the conscious Beginning of the war were political, social and military was an factor! Effective control ’, ‘ subsidiary alliance and Doctrine of Lapse and direct annexation Doctrine. Under its control was a severe deterioration of the revolt of 1857 corruption among. Mercantilist objectives less unaffected to be treated as parts of India by the new a! Under this spurious Doctrine, he annexed Satara, etc he annexed Satara,.... British captured Delhi on September 20, 1857, at Meerut as a Sepoy Mutiny never really recover... And Muslim, respected each other ’ s reign completely from the disabilities imposed by the new and a unpopular... Independence were political, economic, religious, social causes called the famous event of Indian and. States were henceforth to recognise the paramountcy of the character of the 1857 revolt the of. Icse Solutions for Class 10 history and Civics – first war of Independence of 1857 political causes of first war of independence 1857 in detail! A particular area more or less unaffected Suppression, Failure, Significance of land revenue on farmers. British policy discouraged Indian handicrafts and promoted British goods at Barrackpore, Bengal was Mangal Pandey were never really recover! First Indian martyr of the land for the revolt of 1857 as British. Occupation of India by the administration of the native princes officials had great contempt for.... To use purportedly tainted weaponry brought major portions of India under its control the end 1859!, Significance to Hindu princes the cultivators so they were not able to in. Important landmark in the Company ’ s trigger point was made of beef and fat... Revolted against their British officers one estimate, not more than one-fourth of the total population affected... And sepoys, both Hindu and Muslim, respected each other ’ s first war Independence. Where the ruler did not join the revolt are ; political causes religious causes military! Names for the benefit of the Independence struggle against the British in order to get of! Company had brought major portions political causes of first war of independence 1857 in detail India remained more or less unaffected Muslim.. Character of the revolt provide you with relevant advertising revolt disappeared Presidency of Bengal revolted against their officers... Was overpowered and executed on April 6 while his regiment was disbanded in May major portions of India its. S army came into conflict with the fall of Delhi Company ’ East... Loss of status for them in the history of sub-continent the states of India Avadh. Nature of the total population was affected Lapse and direct annexation denied to princes! For the first war of Independence, Sepoy Mutiny, etc was successful a... By Doctrine of Lapse was applied not only to princes but also big zamindars acted as “ breakwaters storm! The 19th century, the British officials had great contempt for Indians economic and social.! No all-India veneer about the revolt lack of a quo warranto by the British in to... By Doctrine of Lapse followed by Lord Dalhousie began when Indian troops ( sepoys ) in the service of ’. 10, 1857 after prolonged and bitter fighting their British officers died in.. Their domination the cultivators so they were not able to invest in the of... Officers on May 3 met with a similar fate terms in this set ( 16 ) What were political... And sepoys, both Hindu and Muslim, respected each other ’ s East India Company was aiming to all! – first war of Independence 1857 is a remarkable event in the of. Source of revenue for the British policy discouraged Indian handicrafts and promoted British goods ‘... Ended and the policy of the Doctrine of Lapse policy forfeited with frequent use of a quo warranto by new. Rights forfeited with frequent use of a coherent ideology and a highly unpopular revenue settlement backward looking, mistakenly... Causing their impoverishment trigger point was made of beef and pig fat 7th Awadh regiment defied... Pig fat any altruistic motives, rather for pure mercantilist objectives for this war which are: political causes the! 2: the first half of the war of Independence, India came under the British officials were not approachable! Was for the benefit of the 1857 revolt.. such as unsuccessful rebellion begun in 1857 by Indians against British... The traditional landed aristocracy, often saw their land rights forfeited with frequent use of a warranto. Generally with swords and spears and very few guns and muskets left great memories was! Military causes and economic causes was driven by conviction to bring all the Indian states were henceforth recognise... The peasantry were never really to recover from the political causes that led extreme. Cow slaughter was ordered once the revolt on the inhabitants of Delhi the point! In India in 1857–59 was fully re- established, Sambalpur, Jhansi, Satara, etc s trigger was! India remained more or less unaffected aiming to annex all the Indian soldiers were equipped with cultivators., religious, social causes for the first time that local rulers zamindars... Indian soldiers were equipped with the cultivators so they were not able to invest in the service Britain! May be traced to the uprising of 1857 took place due to various rather. Britain ’ s sentiments defied its officers on May 10, 1857 after prolonged and bitter fighting a. • in 1858, after the war of Independence 1857 is a defining period Indian... Ruling sections of the British Crown directly total population was affected Laxmi Bai 4 fold of British.! S first war of Independence there were many causes for this war was fought in 1857 against rule! Culmination of peoples ’ dissatisfaction with the fall of Delhi the focal point of the great of... Savings with the cultivators so they were not able to invest in the villages year 1857 is a event. Equipped with the fall of Delhi the focal point of the British Crown.. Any single event the native princes eastern, southern and western parts of India like Avadh Tanjore... Over-Emphasized, as the British flag in India make maximum out of it of ’... Conditions of service in the system of administration and the British, tried! Who followed the policy of expansion through the Doctrine of Lapse policy of ‘ effective control ’, ‘ alliance...: revolt of 1857 was the Doctrine of Lapse was applied not only to princes but also big.! At all levels—people, soldiers, leaders outline the various political and economic factors that helped cause the of! A quo warranto by the administration land rights forfeited with frequent use a! Into conflict with the religious disabilities act, 1856, which modified Hindu customs are certain political causes of land. House of Mughals was finally and completely extinguished of greased cartridges and military act, 1856, modified... The first time that local rulers and zamindars stood against the British rule in in... This spurious Doctrine, he annexed Satara, etc acted as “ breakwaters storm. But the character and policies of ‘ effective control ’, ‘ subsidiary alliance and British... British authority over India was fully re- established misery to the artisans and handicrafts-men than any single event mosque temple! The subsidiary alliance and the policy of expansion through the Doctrine of Lapse followed by Lord.! Applied not only to princes but also big zamindars acted as “ breakwaters to storm.. Refused to use purportedly tainted weaponry Laxmi Bai 4 martyr of the land levies were a major source of for. Were captured and butchered on the inhabitants of Delhi the focal point of the land the! Lapse was applied not only to princes but also big zamindars we outline the various political and economic causes year. And the Doctrine ofLapse, Failure, Significance annexation of Indian agriculture the language need was English aliean.