Use of the Fitnessgram represents a transition from the current test, which focuses on performance rather than health and is based on normative rather than criterion-referenced data, to a criterion-referenced, health-related fitness assessment instrument. The physical education policy of one online school, the Florida Virtual School, is presented in Box 5-3. Issues and Answers Report, REL 2007, No. Strengthening of school physical education has received support from the public, health agencies, and parents. Twenty-eight states (55 percent) allow temporary/emergency certificates to teach physical education that are valid for 1 to 3 years (NASPE, 2012). The four concepts were body (representing the instrument of the action); space (where the body is moving); effort (the quality with which the movement is executed); and relationships (the connections that occur as the body moves—with objects, people, and the environment; Stevens-Smith, 2004). 2006. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal Health-related fitness: Achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of health-related fitness. NASBE (National Association of State Boards of Education). 2012b. These data appear to suggest that physical education teacher education programs are beginning to turn from a traditionally sports- and skills-centered model to a more comprehensive, physical activity– and health-centered model. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 79(4):506-516. Additionally, as the catalyst for a healthy school environment, the physical education specialist can assist in the design and delivery of intramural programs provided before and after school, as well as serve as a community outreach specialist for onsite activity partnerships. The most impactful statement of government policy on the preparation and professional development of teachers was the 2002 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Whitehurst, 2002), known as the No Child Left Behind Act. Physical education became a subject matter in schools (in the form of German and Swedish gymnastics) at the beginning of the 19th century (Hackensmith, 1966). 2008. PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN THE CONTEXT OF SCHOOLING. 1962. A higher proportion of urban districts (76 percent) than rural districts (54 percent) reported such increases. Three-year maintenance of improved diet and physical activity: The CATCH cohort. 2010. Los Angeles: The California Endowment. In support of the inclusion of physical education as a core subject, Senator Tom Udall (D-NM) reintroduced the Promoting Health for Youth Skills in Classrooms and Life (PHYSICAL) Act on February 27, 2013, to support and encourage the health and well-being of elementary and secondary school students. Physical education colleges. McKenzie, T. L. 2007. Maximum practice opportunities for class activities. There is a potential shortage of physical education specialists to influence the design and maintenance of quality physical education programs. Administrative support was found to be a key factor in turning programs around, along with staff commitment and professional development. Parents recently surveyed expressed favorable views of physical education. Pp. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 17:327-341. 8th ed. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy 13(1):1-29. Physical Education is an important part of the primary curriculum and one that provides unique challenges for those involved with its teaching. 4. 1930. It is aligned with and directly related to state academic content standards, student achievement standards, and assessments. To unlock this lesson you must be a Member. Kramer, S. L., and R. Keller. While collecting data on the effects of Nintendo Wii on 11-year-olds in New Zealand, White and colleagues (2009) found that active video games generated higher energy expenditure than both resting and inactive screen watching. Baranowski, T., R. Buday, D. I. Thompson, and J. Baranowski. Dagkas, S., and A. Stathi. However, most mandates lack a specified time allocation that ensures meeting the NASPE recommendation of 150 and 225 minutes per week for elementary and secondary schools, respectively (McCullick et al., 2012), despite the fact that physical education has been considered a cornerstone for developing schoolwide multicomponent interventions to address the issue of physical inactivity in schools. Laban, R. 1980. The average increase for English language arts was 141 minutes per week, or a 47 percent increase over the level prior to the act (Center on Education Policy, 2007; see district survey items 18 and 19 in Table IT-18A). Opportunities are provided to improve emerging social and cooperative skills and gain a multicultural perspective. Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings. ... Current approaches to physical education and physical activity, largely . Pediatrics 124(2):534-540. For example, White and colleagues (2009) examined the effects. Since the 1980s, experts have identified different teaching methods that speak to the key areas of school readiness and the various stages of students’ cognitive, social, and emotional development. Perry, C. L., E. J. For this approach to become more prevalent, supportive policies will be necessary, an observation supported by the fact that just one in four U.S. public elementary schools offered children and youth physical activity breaks apart from physical education and recess during the 2009-2011 school years (Turner and Chaloupka, 2012). Examples of active gaming programs with accompanying equipment include Konami Dance Dance Revolution (DDR), Nintendo Wii, Gamebikes, Kinect XBOX, Xavix, and Hopsports. Activities in the curriculum are designed for health benefits, and the ultimate goal for the student is to develop a commitment to regular exercise and physical. Journal of School Health 75(8):313-319. 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