Car manufacturing (for the French car manufacturer Peugeot as well as for the English truck manufacturer Bedford, now a subsidiary of General Motors), T-shirts, plastics and processed food. In the period before 1983 election, a report of experts prepared by the National Institute of Policy and Strategic Studies showed that only the 1959 and 1979 elections were held without systematic rigging. The location map of Nigeria below highlights the geographical position of Nigeria within Africa on the world map. The one most frequently used by international visitors is Murtala Muhammed International Airport (LOS), located on the outskirts of Lagos. Quite often they are plucked or cut, and fed either as fresh or conserved fodders. It has the seventh-largest trade surplus with the U.S. of any country worldwide. In addition to its petroleum resources, Nigeria also has a wide array of underexploited mineral resources which include natural gas, coal, bauxite, tantalite, gold, tin, iron ore, limestone, niobium, lead and zinc. The country became independent on October 1, 1960, and in 1963 adopted a republican constitution but elected to stay a member of the Commonwealth. It produces Buses and SUVs. [236], HIV/AIDS rate in Nigeria is much lower compared to the other African nations such as Botswana or South Africa whose prevalence (percentage) rates are in the double digits. Nigeria provides free, government-supported education, but attendance is not compulsory at any level, and certain groups, such as nomads and the handicapped, are under-served. The territory controlled by the Empire included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria. Haphazard industrial planning, increased urbanisation, poverty and lack of competence of the municipal government are seen as the major reasons for high levels of waste pollution in major cities of the country. Its status as a major petroleum producer figures prominently in its sometimes volatile international relations with developed countries, notably the United States, and with developing countries. [144], As industrialization has increased, it has also put species of trees in the forest at risk to air pollution and studies have shown that in certain parts of Nigeria, trees have shown tolerance and grow in areas that have a significant amount air pollution[145]. Other players who graduated from the junior teams are Nduka Ugbade, Jonathan Akpoborie, Victor Ikpeba, Celestine Babayaro, Wilson Oruma and Taye Taiwo. [169] Lagos is regarded as one of the largest technology hubs in Africa with its thriving tech ecosysytem. [294] The 2010 film Ijé by Chineze Anyaene, overtook The Figurine to become the highest grossing Nigerian film; a record it held for four years, until it was overtaken in 2014 by Half of a Yellow Sun(2013). Between 1990 and 2000, Nigeria lost an average of 409,700 hectares of forest every year equal to an average annual deforestation rate of 2.4%. Until 1975 it was the capital of Lagos state, and until 1991 it was the federal capital of Nigeria. Nigeria also supported several Pan-African and pro-self government causes in the 1970s, including garnering support for Angola's MPLA, SWAPO in Namibia, and aiding opposition to the minority governments of Portuguese Mozambique, and Rhodesia. In April 2015, Nigeria began talks with Russia's state-owned Rosatom to collaborate on the design, construction and operation of four nuclear power plants by 2035, the first of which will be in operation by 2025. However, Nigeria’s most diverse feature is its people. It has 2.5-metre resolution panchromatic (very high resolution), 5-metre multispectral (high resolution, NIR red, green and red bands), and 32-metre multispectral (medium resolution, NIR red, green and red bands) antennas, with a ground receiving station in Abuja. The British appointed Muhammadu Attahiru II as the new Caliph. The legacy, though less pronounced, continues to the present day. In June 2012, President Goodluck Jonathan said Nigerians should limit their number of children. [280], Women also face a large amount of inequality Politically in Nigeria, being subjugated to a bias which is sexist and reinforced by socio-cultural, economic and oppressive ways. Nigeria was also a founding member of the Organisation for African Unity (now the African Union), and has tremendous influence in West Africa and Africa on the whole. His successor, Abdulsalam Abubakar, handed over power to the democratically elected government of Olusegun Obasanjo the next year. [64] An imbalance was created in the polity by the result of the 1961 plebiscite. The Supreme Vikings Confraternity, for example, boasts that twelve members of the Rivers State House of Assembly are cult members. The terrain of Nigeria is varied: lowlands in the south, mountains in the southeast, central hills and plateaux, and plains in the north. Breunig, Peter. August 13, 1990, "Nigeria, Military Faces Daunting Challenges", AP Press International, 3. Lagos is the largest city in Africa, with a population of over 12 million in its urban area.[134]. [110] Kin-selective altruism has made its way into Nigerian politics, resulting in tribalist efforts to concentrate Federal power to a particular region of their interests through.[111]. First-year entry requirements into most universities in Nigeria include: Minimum of SSCE/GCE Ordinary Level Credits at a maximum of two sittings; Minimum cut-off marks in Joint Admission and Matriculation Board Entrance Examination (JAMB) of 180 and above out of a maximum of 400 marks are required. Candidates with a minimum of Merit Pass in National Certificate of Education (NCE), National Diploma (ND) and other Advanced Level Certificates minimum qualifications with a minimum of 5O/L Credits are given direct entry admission into the appropriate undergraduate degree programs. [60], Christian missions established Western educational institutions in the Protectorates. [220], The 2010 census of Association of Religion Data Archives has also reported that 48.8% of the total population was Christian, slightly larger than the Muslim population of 43.4%, while 7.5% were members of other religions. NigeriaEduSat-1 was a satellite designed, built, and owned by the Federal University of Technology Akure (FUTA), in conjunction with Nigeria's National Space Research and Development Agency and Japan's Kyushu Institute of Technology. The Lake Chad basin and the coastal areas, including the Niger River delta and the western parts of the Sokoto region in the far northwest, are underlain by soft, geologically young sedimentary rocks. The satellite transmitted songs and poems as an outreach project to generate Nigerian interest in science. The first coup was in January 1966 and was led mostly by Igbo soldiers under Majors Emmanuel Ifeajuna and Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu. The northern part of the country then became larger than the southern part. The 1983 military coup d'état took place on New Year's Eve of that year. The Yoruba area contains a large Anglican population, while Igboland is a mix of Roman Catholics, Protestants, and a small population of Igbo Jews. [80] After the coup attempt, General Olusegun Obasanjo was appointed military head of state. During the oil boom of the 1970s, Nigeria accumulated a significant foreign debt to finance major infrastructural investments. He legalized the formation of political parties, and formed the two-party system with the Social Democratic Party (SDP) and National Republican Convention (NRC) ahead of the 1992 general elections. Both Roman Catholicism and Protestantism are observed in the Ibibio, Annang, Efik, Ijo and Ogoni lands of the south. However, agitation for better resource control in the Niger Delta, its main oil-producing region, has led to disruptions in oil production and prevents the country from exporting at 100% capacity. Nigeria has Benin to its west, Niger to the north, Cameroon, and Chad to its east. The official language of Nigeria, English, was chosen to facilitate the cultural and linguistic unity of the country, owing to the influence of British colonisation which ended in 1960. [68] Estimates of the number of dead in the former Eastern Region during the 30-month civil war range from one to three million. The entry of exotic plants into Nigeria during the post-independence era was encouraged by increasing economic activity, the commencement of commercial oil explorations, introduction through ships, and introduction of ornamental plants by commercial floriculturists. In reality, money is taken out instead, and/or large fees (which seem small in comparison with the imaginary wealth he awaits) are deducted. The ports and harbors located in Nigeria are shown on the map below. These players include Basketball Hall of Famer Hakeem Olajuwon, and later NBA draft picks Solomon Alabi, Yinka Dare, Obinna Ekezie, Festus Ezeli, Al-Farouq Aminu and Olumide Oyedeji. By the end of 2013, the film industry reportedly hit a record-breaking revenue of ₦1.72 trillion (US$11 billion). In 1983 the inspectors of the state-owned Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) began to notice "the slow poisoning of the waters of this country". [106], Nigeria is a federal republic modelled after the United States,[107] with executive power exercised by the President. Nigeria is located in western Africa on the Gulf of Guinea. Nigeria has remained a key player in the international oil industry since the 1970s, and maintains membership in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), which it joined in July 1971. Located at the extreme inner corner of the Gulf of Guinea on the west coast of Africa, Nigeria occupies an area of 923,768 sq. Nigeria hoped to begin construction in 2011 and start nuclear power production in 2017–2020. Gang violence in Lagos resulted in 273 civilians and 84 policemen killed in the period of August 2000 to May 2001. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [82] Aware of the danger of alienating northern Nigerians, Obasanjo brought General Shehu Yar'Adua as his replacement and second-in-command as Chief of Staff, Supreme Headquarters completing the military triumvirate, with Obasanjo as head of state and General Theophilus Danjuma as Chief of Army Staff, the three went on to re-establish control over the military regime and organized the military's transfer of power programme: states creation and national delimitation, local government reforms and the constitutional drafting committee of the Second Nigerian Republic.[83]. Nigeria, country located on the western coast of Africa. To the southeast of the Benue are hills and mountains, which form the Mambilla Plateau, the highest plateau in Nigeria. [139] In the Sahel region, rain is less than 500 millimetres (20 in) per year and the Sahara Desert is encroaching. Nigeria has a diverse geography, with climates ranging from arid to humid equatorial. With the fall of oil prices during the 1980s oil glut Nigeria struggled to keep up with its loan payments and eventually defaulted on its principal debt repayments, limiting repayment to the interest portion of the loans. [262] The group's targets include both civilians and Nigerian security forces. At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio led a successful jihad against the Hausa Kingdoms founding the centralised Sokoto Caliphate (also known as the Fulani Empire). [261], Between 2011 and 2018, Boko Haram has been responsible for more than 37,000 deaths in the region. Nigeria is a founding member of the African Union and a member of many other international organizations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the ECOWAS, and OPEC. There are 521 languages that have been spoken in Nigeria; nine of them are now extinct. The area of southern Nigeria between the Niger and the Cross Rivers has lost most of its forest because of development and harvesting by increased population, with it being replaced by grassland (see Cross-Niger transition forests). At independence, the cultural and political differences were sharp among Nigeria's dominant ethnic groups: the Hausa–Fulani ('Northerners'), Igbo ('Easterners') and Yoruba ('Westerners'). The modern state originated with British colonialization in the 19th century, taking its present territorial shape with the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914 by Lord Frederick Lugard. Its biggest cities and towns include Lagos, Kano, Ibadan and Kaduna. Established in 2010, the event takes place over a 3- to 5-day period at selected high-quality outdoor venues. since the Federal Government introduced tough new measures against religious violence in all affected parts of the country. Explore Nigeria Using Google Earth: Economic development has been hindered by years of military rule, corruption, and mismanagement. Everything in between the far south and the far north is savannah (insignificant tree cover, with grasses and flowers located between trees). This caused controversy ECOWAS, citing France Co-opting African Unity and if ratified, would lead to a loss of sovereignty. Soils in Nigeria, and in Africa generally, are usually of a poorer quality than those in other regions of the world. [203], The middle belt of Nigeria is known for its diversity of ethnic groups, including the Pyem, Goemai, and Kofyar. Legal. These include the Redeemed Christian Church of God, Winners' Chapel, Christ Apostolic Church (the first Aladura Movement in Nigeria), Living Faith Church Worldwide, Deeper Christian Life Ministry, Evangelical Church of West Africa, Mountain of Fire and Miracles, Christ Embassy, Lord's Chosen Charismatic Revival Movement, Celestial Church of Christ, and Dominion City. British missionaries expanded their operations and traveled further inland. The statistics come from this list, so study it for an unfair advantage! Football is largely considered Nigeria's national sport and the country has its own Premier League of football. [122] Nigeria is also a member of the International Criminal Court, and the Commonwealth of Nations. [158] Rubber is the second-largest non-oil foreign exchange earner. Both sites are planned to house two plants each. [175] Ogun is considered to be Nigeria's current industrial hub, as most factories are located in Ogun and more companies are moving there, followed by Lagos. It has a huge population by the latest census report. [21][22][Note 2] Nigeria is often referred to as the "Giant of Africa", owing to its large population and economy,[23] and is also considered to be an emerging market by the World Bank;[24] it has been identified as a regional power on the African continent,[25][26][27] a middle power in international affairs,[28][29][30][31] and has also been identified as an emerging global power. For instance, northern Nigeria did not outlaw slavery until 1936 whilst in other parts of Nigeria slavery was abolished soon after colonialism. Some northern states have incorporated Sharia law into their previously secular legal systems, which has brought about some controversy. English as a first language is used by only a small minority of the country's urban elite, and it is not spoken at all in some rural areas. Holman, Michael (24 February 1986) "Nigeria, Politics; Religious Differences Intensify". Other places of interest include the Tafawa Balewa Square, Festac town, The Nike Art Gallery, Freedom Park, Lagos and the Cathedral Church of Christ, Lagos. [47] The Yoruba kingdoms of Ife and Oyo in southwestern Nigeria became prominent in the 12th[50][51] and 14th[52] centuries, respectively. It currently has an indigenous vehicle manufacturing company, Innoson Motors, which manufactures saloon cars, rapid transit buses, ambulances, firefighting trucks and SUVs. In August 2014, Shell Oil Company said it was finalising its interests in four Nigerian oil fields. [157], Major crops include beans, sesame, cashew nuts, cassava, cocoa beans, groundnuts, gum arabic, kolanut, maize (corn), melon, millet, palm kernels, palm oil, plantains, rice, rubber, sorghum, soybeans and yams. [227][228], Leading Protestant churches in the country include the Church of Nigeria of the Anglican Communion, the Assemblies of God Church, the Nigerian Baptist Convention and The Synagogue, Church Of All Nations. Located in the city, in the Three Arms Zone, is the Presidential Complex, it consists of the "State House" and "The Aso Rock Presidential Villa", the palatial residence of the president, the National Assembly, and the Supreme Court of Nigeria, as well as several other federal buildings. Sahel savannah consists of patches of grass and sand, found in the northeast. In 1989, Babangida started making plans for the transition to the Third Nigerian Republic. As oil revenues fueled the rise of federal subsidies to states, the federal government became the centre of political struggle and the threshold of power in the country. The major drainage areas in Nigeria are the Niger-Benue basin, the Lake Chad basin, and the Gulf of Guinea basin. By the middle of the 20th century, a great wave for independence was sweeping across Africa. Modern Nigeria dates from 1914, when the British Protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria were joined. [199], One in six Africans is Nigerian as of 2019. [130] As of 2020, the Eco currency has been delayed to 2025. [120] One exception to the African focus was Nigeria's close relationship developed with Israel throughout the 1960s. In June 2015, Nigeria selected two sites for the planned construction of the nuclear plants. By the end of 2017, there were around 4,000 players in more than 100 clubs in the country. [179] Nigeria also has a few electronic manufacturers like Zinox, the first branded Nigerian computer, and manufacturers of electronic gadgets such as tablet PCs. It is a federal republic comprising 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. [283] Mostly because of government instability, which affects the rate at which citizens of Nigeria are employed is the major reason for the poverty levels being higher in certain periods of time. In 1977, a constituent assembly was elected to draft a new constitution, which was published on September 21, 1978, when the ban on political activity was lifted. Characteristic landforms in this region include oxbow lakes, river meander belts (see meander), and prominent levees. Concord Press, Ikeja, Lagos. Most records are stored on paper, filed by dates, location, and, in regards to divorce cases, presiding court. The disequilibrium and perceived corruption of the electoral and political process led, in 1966, to back-to-back military coups. The education system consists of six years of primary school, three years of junior secondary school, three years of senior secondary school, and four, five or six years of university education leading to a bachelor's degree. Lord Frederick Lugard a British general, was tasked by the Colonial Office to implement the agenda. On March 13, 1903, at the grand market square of Sokoto, the last Vizier of the Caliphate officially conceded to British rule. [306] In 2015, Wellington Jighere became the first African player to win World Scrabble Championship. Since 1995, the Nigerian military, through ECOMOG mandates, have been deployed as peacekeepers in Liberia (1997), Ivory Coast (1997–1999), and Sierra Leone (1997–1999). 9 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons", "The Economic Development of Nigeria from 1914 to 2014", "Nigcomsat-1 Program – In-Orbit Delivery Program – Communications Satellite – CGWIC", "Nigcomsat-1 Program – In-Orbit Delivery Program – Communications Satellite", United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan urges birth control, "World Population TO INCREASE BY 2.6 BILLION OVER NEXT 45 YEARS, WITH ALL GROWTH OCCURRING IN LESS DEVELOPED REGIONS", "Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat", "The Demographic Divide: What It Is and Why It Matters", "The 10 Most Populated Countries in Africa", "China and Africa: Stronger Economic Ties Mean More Migration", "Why white Zimbabwean farmers plan to stay in Nigeria", "Africa :: Nigeria — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency", "Percentages By Religion of the 1952 and 1963 Populations of Nigeria's Present 36 States", "Kano Seeks Supremacy of Sharia Over Constitution", "Table: Religious Composition by Country, in Percentages", "The Future of the Global Muslim Population", "Table: Christian Population in Numbers by Country | Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project", "Nigeria: a secular or multi religious state – 2", "The Middle Belt Movement and the Formation of Christian Consciousness in Colonial Northern Nigeria. 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